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Gothic Schriften: Schwabacher, Textur, Rotunda, Fraktur

The "Schwabacher" Gothic letter has been in use since 1472. Its name is derived from either the city of Schwabach ( Bavaria ) or a printer named Schwabacher. Luther´s translation of the Bible was printed in this font.
Gothic letters /Textur/ on the traditional Tyrolean clothes. The kind of monogram. Fot. Elisabeth Fazel.

The Schwabacher was a blackletter typeface that evolved from textualis under the influence of Humanist type design in Italy. It was nearer to handwriting than the textualis style. In the 16th century, it was displaced by fraktur as the most-used German typeface from about 1530. Thereafter it was in use as a secondary typeface in a similar way to italic. It was still used occasionally until the mid 20th century. Source: Wikipedia.
From "Type and National Identity" by Peter Bain and Paul Shaw.

What is Gothic? Gothic was the culminating artistic expression of the middle ages, occurring roughly from 1200—1500. The term Gothic originated with the Italians who used it to refer to rude or barbaric cultures north of the Italian Alps.
According to Christopher Wren's Saracenic Theory, Gothic style had nothing to do with the Goths, rather it was a style influenced by a number of factors including Saracenic art —an Islamic influence from the Crusades.        
The Gothic spirit took hold in France, Germany and England where it was manifested through unhindered upward striving: the vertical supplanted horizontals as the dominant line in architecture; the pointed arch replaced the round arch of the Romans; the almond shape, or mandorla, was preferred. Gothic writing forms reflected this aesthetic.
Blackletter type is often misleadingly referred to as either Old English or gothic, two terms that are only partially accurate. Blackletter is an all encompassing term used to describe the scripts of the Middle Ages in which the darkness of the characters overpowers the whiteness of the page.
Old street name plate in Telfs, Tyrol, Austria .Schwabacher fonts. Fot. Elisabeth Fazel.

The basic black letter scripts are textura and rotunda, the former primarily associated with northern Europe and the latter with southern Europe. These are both book scripts. Textualis, also known as textura or Gothic bookhand, was the most calligraphic form of black letter, and today is the form most associated with "Gothic". Johannes Gutenberg carved a textualis typeface – including a large number of ligatures and common abbreviations – when he printed his 42-line Bible. However, the textualis was rarely used for typefaces afterwards.
Bastarda, a third category of blackletter originally confined to documents, was elevated to formal status in the 15th century French and Burgundian book of hours...Rotunda types soon followed, cut by printers in Switzerland, and more importantly in Italy.
After 1480 schwabacher types, based on local bastarda traditions, appeared in Bohemia, Switzerland, austrian North Tyrol and the German states.

Treze Tilias - Tiroler Stadt in Brasilien

Treze Tílias (German: Dreizehnlinden, literally "Thirteen Lindens") is a municipality located in the state of Santa Catarina in south Brasil. The municipality population estimate is ca 5, 500. Treze Tílias was originally created on October 13, 1933.
Treze Tílias from www.trezetilias.com.br
Founded by Andreas Thaler who was born in Wildschönau /North Tyrol/ - former Austrian minister of agriculture, who lead the group of immigrants , the large majority from Tyrol and Vorarlberg. The economy of Treze Tílias is based on agriculture, tourism, and woodworking.
Treze Tilias coat of arms
Treze Tílias is a typically Austrian city. Its natural and climatic similarities to the Tyrol region. Today, in addition to the view, the entire city is reminiscent of Austria: the two-story white houses with wooden details on the windows and window boxes, the cuisine, traditions, festivals and typical dances, as well as the beautiful and well cared for parks. There is also an emphasis on the colonial products, Austrian handicrafts and the town’s main tourist event: Tirolerfest.
Sources: Wikipedia, www.turismo.sc.gov.br

Wildschönau eine Gemeinde im Bezirk Kufstein in Tirol

Wildschönau is a 24 km long valley in the Kitzbühel Alps, close to the city of Wörgl, Tyrol, Austria.

For a long time mining was the main source of income in this area, while today tourism and pastoral economy prevail. There are also some famous citizens, including the Porsche Supercup racing driver Norbert Siedler, as well as Andreas Thaler (1883-1939), agricultural minister and founder of Treze Tílias (in German: Dreizehnlinden), a Tyrolean village in Brazil.

According to legends, the area of Wildschönau has once been covered by a lake, at the river of which a dragon resided. 

When a farmer killed the dragon, before that the dragon stroke the rock that delimited the lake. As a consequence the water of the lake flowed into the Kundl gorge, which made the beautiful Wildschönau high valley emerge. This dragon is also pictured on the emblem of Wildschönau, on dark blue and black background

Street festival in Wildschönau, Tyrol, summer 2014. Fot: Janusz Słota.

In summer there is a network of 300 km hiking trails available, while the main winter activities are skiing, as the Ski Jewel Alpbachtal Wildschönau skiing area offers 128 km of well-groomed slopes.
Sources: www.tyrol.tl, www.travelplanet.pl

Franz I. Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches

Francis I /Franz Stephan von Lothringen/ was born in Nancy on December 8, 1708, in France. He lived at the court of Holy Roman emperor Charles VI where he met Maria Theresa. Francis I married her in 1736. He had to give up Lorraine, but he was named the grand duke of Tuscany. Maria Theresa assumed power when her father died in 1740. She shared power with her husband, helping him get the title of Holy Roman emperor. He died in 1765 in Tyrol.
Holy Roman emperor and member of European royalty Francis I was born Francis Stephen on December 8, 1708, in Nancy, Duchy of Lorraine (now a part of France). With close ties to the Habsburg dynasty, Francis lived at the court of the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI. While there, he assumed the title of Duke of Lorraine in 1729 and was known as Francis Stephen at that time.
While living at court, Francis became acquainted with Maria Theresa, Charles VI's eldest daughter and heir. To marry her, Francis had to give up Lorraine to Poland's King Stanislaw I Leszczyński to end the War of Polish Succession. The wedding took place on February 12, 1736 in Augustinian Church, Vienna. Francis later became grand duke of Tuscany as repayment for his earlier sacrifice.
After Charles VI died in 1740, Maria Theresa became the new ruler, but she decided to share her power with her husband. During the War of Austrian Succession, Francis was selected to be the Holy Roman emperor in 1745. While his wife helped him get the title of Holy Roman emperor, she ruled over most matters of government and war. Francis I died suddenly of a stroke in 1765 in Innsbruck, Tyrol.
Francis I and Maria Theresa had 16 children, including emperors Joseph II and Leopold II. One of their daughters, Marie Antoinette, became queen of France.
Source: www.biography.com

Richtfest in Telfs in Tirol

Feast of future residents in Telfs, Tyrol, Austria. New residential buildings already under roof! 3 July 2014.
Richtfest in Telfs in Tirol
Richtfest in Telfs in Tirol

Schloss Tirol - Castle Tyrol

Tirol Castle (German: Schloss Tirol, Italian: Castel Tirolo) is a castle in the municipality of Tirol near Meran, in the Burggrafenamt district of South Tyrol, Italy.
Tyrol Castle is Tyrol’s most historically important castle. Its owners, the Counts of Vinschgau, who were also known as the Counts of Tyrol, represented the region that was named after them for almost a thousand years. The castle was constructed between 1138 and 1160. Around 1270, Meinhard II /read here/prevails against the bishops of Tyrol, and unites the area under his name. He levied duties and a toll on all goods that pass. This was very lucrative. 
Schloss Tirol, Nordseite. Graphik von Carl Heyn, 1869.
The castle’s archaeological museum gives a good overview of the first human settlements in the Alpine region beginning in the seventh century B.C. Visitors will be appreciate the smelting furnace, still completely intact, that dates back to the Bronze Age. The circular wall, built around 1100, is generally among the oldest castle walls in existence today. Marble portals from the twelfth century shine in ancient splendour. Sculptures rich in symbolism are among the most original creations of Romanesque art in Tyrol. The chapel, which has frescoes that date to the thirteenth century, houses the oldest Tyrolean glass painting and a massive fourteenth-century crucifixion group carved from wood.
Tirol Castle
The decline of Tyrol Castle, which eventually only housed a castle attendant, chaplain and woodsman, began with the end of the 16th century. In the first half of the 17th century the entire northern side, where the royal suites were located, was removed – due to fears arising from the fragility of the moraine hill on which the castle stands. Eventually, in 1816 the city of Meran acquired the castle and subsequently gifted it to Emperor Franz I.
After the First World War the castle passed into the ownership of the Italian state and only changed hands again as a consequence of the Package Agreement in 1972. Today the regional government of the Autonomous Province has established its museum for culture and regional history there.
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